E3 Cooperation beyond Brexit: Challenging but Necessary

Improving global governance
Posted Sep 11, 2020 | Chatham House, Alice Billon-Galland, Richard Whitman

The UK’s cooperation with France and Germany as part of the ‘E3’ has been largely low-key, marked by close relationships and contacts between officials rather than high-profile summits between leaders. In Europe’s current uncertain strategic context, the E3 is a key device for diplomatic cooperation between the 'big three', suggest Alice Billon-Galland and Richard Whitman in this article for Chatham House. In the absence of EU-UK negotiations on a future framework for foreign, security and defence policy, the E3 is of central importance in aligning and mobilising the three states. France and Germany must, however, reconcile their work with the UK in the E3, with their obligations to the EU.



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